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  1. The Audience in Mind : women audiences and film programs in 1910s Mannheim Germany

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    QuellenartElektronische Volltexte & Multimedia>>Berichte aus Forschung, Projekten, Tagungen>>
    UrheberHaller, Andrea
    Verleger Universität <Trier>
    Umfang 18 S.
    Schlagworte FWFilmprogramm; Filmgeschichtsschreibung; Publikum
    Freie Schlagworte FW Kinogeschichte; Kommunikationsgeschichte; Mediengeschichte; Emilie Altenloh
    Beschreibung "Cinema programming, the composition of films to make a specific "show," remains a neglected way to research the relation between audiences and film form. As a mode of exhibition – advertised, promoted, and circulating in the public sphere even before an audience is gathered – the program can be seen as an active social relation between cinema managers and their audiences. Changes in the composition of film programs, in my case the years before the First World War in Mannheim, Germany, are thus not taken as part of a teleological evolution of film form, but instead reveal emerging practices of cinema-going, a changing relation among showmen, distributors, audiences, and the city they are all part of. The category of "the audience" becomes a compliment to narrative, economic and technical influences. Selecting the city of Mannheim further allows me to draw upon the pioneering German sociological study of cinema audiences, conducted there by Emilie Altenloh in 1911 and 1912. Thus, I am able to compare her survey data to the film programs that were actually advertised and offered to the public at the time, and also include knowledge of the social history of the city, to approximate a description of the historical audiences she studied. Here I follow the findings of Miriam Hansen and Heide Schlüpmann, who both stress the importance of the female audience in Imperial Germany. I account for a reciprocal relation between female spectators and the film industry’s local programming practice to describe the transitional period from the short film programme of the 2cinema of attractions" to the dominance of the long feature film, i.e. from 1906-1918. Looking closely at the advertised programmes of Mannheim I show that almost all of the first multiple-reel feature films deal with women’s topics, i.e. with the fate and fortune of women, concluding that the presence of women in the audience helped established the long feature as central to the institutionalized cinema program. The film program and the specific feature films represented female identity on the screen, responding to the perceived wishes and needs of the women who gathered as audiences. Taking this "program analysis" approach, because it provides a synopsis of the social relation between audience, industry, and film form, is a valuable tool for comparing the social place of film comparatively, across many films, and potentially across regions, countries, and cultures." (Information des Anbieters)
    Inhaltsverzeichnis/StrukturThe first German attempt to study the cinema audience: Emilie Altenloh’s "A Sociology of the Cinema and the Audience"; The city of Mannheim and its cinema topography; Cinema Programs in Mannheim during the time of Altenloh’s survey, 1911-1912; Works cited
    Themen FWFilm>>Biographie, Filmgeschichte; Film>>Filmpublikum
    RVK FWAP 44400-AP 44999; AP 57600
    DDC FWHistorische, geografische, personenbezogene Behandlung
    geographischer BezugEuropa, Westeuropa>>Mitteleuropa, Deutschland>>Deutschland>>Südwestdeutschland>>
    zeitlicher Bezug20. Jahrhundert, 1900 – 1999>>1900 - 1919>>
    Anmerkungen zur RessourcePaper held at the Annual Conference of the Society for Cinema and Media Studies 2005, London, March 31 – April 03.